Health Inequities: A Look at the Political Determinants of Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Since January 2020, the U.S. has had over 150,000 deaths attributed to the Coronavirus, and morbidity and mortality rates continue to rise. In the United States, minorities are more likely to die from COVID-19 than other populations - a fact that further solidifies the disparate nature of race and ethnicity relative to one’s health and the inequities in care. COVID-19 has not struck all equally because our economic and social policies have not benefited all equally. This paper introduces a new model, the political determinants of health, which focuses on their role in creating, perpetuating, and exacerbating health inequities.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Assignment of copyright
In order to publish in the American Journal of Health Studies, authors must assign the copyright to American Journal of Health Studies, CPHR Publishing (the Publisher) and distribution license and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript (the “Article”).
This assignment of rights means that I have granted to the Copyright Owner the exclusive right to publish and reproduce the Article, or any part of the Article, in print, electronic and all other media (whether now known or later developed), in any form, in all languages, throughout the world, for the full term of copyright, and the right to license others to do the same, effective when the Article is accepted for publication. This includes the right to enforce the rights granted hereunder against third parties.
Regarding the final published portable document format (pdf) appearing online, authors may print it, share it with colleagues, and/or have it available for personal use and non-commercial research. However, due to copyright laws (copyright belonging to the publisher), authors may not use the pdf for profit, either directly or indirectly. Unauthorized use includes: (1) re-sale; (2) publication in other media (compilations, books, manuals, journals, and the like); (3) use for mass distribution by businesses, corporations or companies; (4) promotion of the funding for a study by any organization or group; (5) reproduction and distribution; (6) selling or licensing copies; or (7) posting on third-party websites such as Research Gate, a university repository website, personal website, or organizational website. Thus, the pdf only may be used by authors for personal and professional use, and NOT for mass distribution. Permissions for such use may be authorized under some circumstances by the publisher (American Journal of Health Studies, CPHR Publishing) if requested in writing, and may incur fee(s) to be determined solely by the publisher. One example of educational use is to place on library reserve as a reading for an online class, which upon the end of the class must be removed immediately.
Publisher reserves the right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. To republish, such third parties must obtain written permission from the Publisher. (This is in accordance with the Copyright Statute, United States Code, Title 17. Exception: If all authors were bona fide officers or employees of the U.S. Government at the time the paper was prepared, the work is a “work of the US Government” (prepared by an officer or employee of the US Government as part of official duties), and therefore is not subject to US copyright; such exception should be indicated on signature lines. If this work was prepared under US Government contract or grant, the US Government may reproduce, royalty-free, all or portions of this work and may authorize others to do so, for official US Government purposes only, if the US Government contract or grant so requires.
I have participated in the conception and design of this work and in the writing of the manuscript and take public responsibility for it. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my authorship has been published, has been submitted for publication elsewhere, or will be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by The Heart Surgery Forum, except as described in an attachment. I have reviewed this manuscript (original version) and approve its submission. If I am listed above as corresponding author, I will provide all authors with information regarding this manuscript and will obtain their approval before submitting any revision. I attest to the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of the content of the manuscript and understand that Publisher assumes no responsibility for the validity, accuracy, and legitimacy of its content. I warrant that this manuscript is original with me and that I have full power to make this Agreement. I warrant that it contains no matter that is libelous or otherwise unlawful or that invades individual privacy or infringes any copyright or other proprietary right. I agree to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless of and from any claim made against Publisher that relates to or arises out of the publication of the manuscript and agree that this indemnification shall include payment of all costs and expenses relating to the defense of any such claim, including all reasonable attorney’s fees.